|Publisher||Global Journal Of Plant Ecophysiology - Springer|
|Publication Title||Climate Variability, Crop-climate Modeling And Water Ecophysiology Research: Implications For Plant’s Capacities For Stress Acclimation, Yield Production And Food Security|
|Publication Authors||J. Bayo Omotosho, S.O. Agele, I.A. Balogun and E. A. Adefisan|
Agricultural practices and production in West Africa have become risky and unsustainable due to the persistent and disastrous drought which started in the early 70s and only began to abate towards the end of the last milleneum. In these circumstances, it is imperative that reliable methods for relating crop yield to climate variability be developed. This paper examines the variabilities in the climate parameters and identifies the environmental factors which influence the yield of two major staple food crops in West Africa – cowpea and rice. The study uses over 80 years of rainfall, 60 years of temperature and 19 years of crop yield data for cowpea and rice for Kano state, in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Nigeria. Significant variations are found not only in the traditional climate parameters of rainfall amount and temperature, but also in the number of raindays, the onset and cessation and, hence, the length of the rainy season. Results show that rainfall amount and number of raindays of specific heaviness in September have strong influence on the yield of both rice and cowpea. However, while June minimum temperature (with other parameters) is important only for the latter, September maximum temperature affects the yield of both crops. The crop-climate models show high skill and demonstrate that reliable annual forecasts of the yield of the crops are possible if these climate parameters could be predicted.
With such crop yield models, governments would be able to plan and put in place pro-active food security measures for their people. The extremity and variability of climate and weather events has far reaching and grevious implications for agriculture and water resources and food security in the humid tropics. Although, models of soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC) integrate the influences of soil and micrometeorological conditions on plant processes, but have rarely been applied to tropical crops under rainfed agriculture. These
models present relevant options which may be applied in the development of technologies for irrigation and water resources management and to ameliorate environmental constraints to crop productivity in the tropics. In circumstances of the changing climate and weather variability and droughts of the future, it is imperative to raise the efficiency of rainfall and soil water use in agriculture. Adoption of water saving/conserving technologies and identification of crop species and species-specific traits that improves crop water use efficiency of crops under rainfed, irrigated and dryland farming systems. In the wake of the growing urgency surrounding drought and a drying climate, necessary to adapt crops and rooting systems to better perform under drought/water limited situations. Improved understanding of the bases of plant adaptation to insufficient-moisture environment will
offer possibilities for improving adaptation in crop plants. Therefore, the need is urgent, for tropical agriculture and farming systems to adapt and respond to the expected variable and warmer climates and droughts of the future. The conclusion emphasizes the need to strengthen knowledge and increase capacity building in soil, water and environmental management, and to develop soil, plant and agrometeorological based tools which integrate the influences of soil and micrometeorological conditions on plant processes. These tools present options useful in fine-tuning technological and agronomic interventions to protect farmers and agricultural systems from drought and consequences of extreme and hazardous climatic events. Soil, plant and agrometeorological based tools are relevant to the development of scientific base to build on sustainable agriculture and water resources management in the tropics.
|Publisher||WCRP, EC And IPCC|
|Publication Title||Performance Evaluation Of CORDEX Regional Climate Models For Rainfall Distribution Over West Africa|
|Publication Authors||Elijah Adefisan, B.J Abiodun, J. A. Omotosho|
The Coordinated Regional Downscaling Exercise (CORDEX-Africa) attempted to test some Regional Climate Models (RCMs) driven by the same initial and boundary conditions (ERA-Interim) in order to simulate African climate from 1998 to 2008. In this study, the ability of these RCMs to simulate West African rainfall distribution in addition to some useful agrometeorological information like rainfall onset and length of growing season were therefore evaluated over the entire West Africa and each of its three climatic zones. Data used for the study comprises of the daily precipitation from Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) form 1999 to 2007, monthly rainfall data from Climate Research Unit (CRU) from 1999 to 2006 were used with the models’ rainfall data.
|Publisher||Nigerian Meteorological Society - AJOL|
|Publication Title||PREDICTING THE ONSET OF RAINFALL IN WEST AFRICA FROM THE EVOLUTION OF ITS BOUNDARY LAYER. Part I: Observational Data|
|Publication Authors||Adefisan, E. A. and Omotosho, J. ‘Bayo|
Upper air data for Kano in Nigeria, Bamako in Mali and Niamey in Niger Republic are used to develop three new prediction schemes for the onset of rainfall over West Africa, from the evolution of its low level air during the transition from dry to wet season. The data is for varying years and from January to May or June. Analysis show that rainfall onset over Kano is 38 days from the date when > 0 from the surface and up to the 850hpa level, but 46 and 41 days over Bamako and Niamey respectively. Using the newly defined convective Richardson’s number, which adequately accounts for the effect of the high lower layer (surface to 850mb level) moisture in West African by replacing potential temperature in the conventional Richardson’s with its corresponding equivalent potential temperature. It was found that after following similar patterns, time series of the conventional Richardson’s number (), separates from that of when moisture begins to build up. Over Kano and Niamey rainfall onset is about 100 days from the date of first clear separation of from for at least 5 days while it is about 83 days over Niamey.
The convective stability has its maximum value about the same time when the surface position of the Inter-tropical discontinuity is over a station. It was observed that the date at which this convective stability is at maximum is consistent over the years in each station and can also be used as a predicting parameter. The date of this maximum is 105, 79 and 96 days away from the onset of rainfall over Kano, Bamako and Niamey respectively. Furthermore, the results also show that there is a progressive upward transfer of heat and particularly moisture from the surface to higher levels during the period.